In this article, we will be discussing the Minamata Disease. We have covered all essential information like the causes of Minamata Disease, symptoms, Minamata disaster, and the Minamata Convention on mercury. Read the below article and understand all facts related to the Minamata Disease. It is one of the essential topics for the IAS exam. In our earlier articles, we have covered details of the vital topics that are part of the UPSC exam study materials. Read the entire article to understand the Minamata Disease and Minamata Convention on mercury.
- What is Minamata Disease?
- IAS Exam Overview
- History of Minamata Disease
- Minamata disease symptoms
- Diagnosis and Treatment of Minamata Disease
- Minamata Disease Disaster
- Minamata Convention on mercury
- How to crack the IAS Exam?
- Conclusion – Minamata Disease Disaster
- FAQs – Minamata Disease Disaster
- Editor's Note | Minamata Disease
What is Minamata Disease?
To begin with, Minamata disease is a neurological disease that is caused by severe mercury poisoning. It is a condition that most parts of the world are unfamiliar with, but it is painfully honest to those living in Minamata, Japan. A neurological syndrome that happens from industrial pollution and environmental contamination. Further, this disease was first identified in n the city of Minamata in 1956.
|Specialty||Toxicology, neurology, psychiatry|
|Symptoms||Ataxia, numbness, and muscle weakness|
|Complications||Loss of peripheral vision and damage to hearing and speech; in extreme cases: insanity, paralysis, and coma; can also affect fetuses; see Mercury poisoning for more details.|
|Usual onset||Soon after consuming the affected seafood|
|Causes||Severe mercury poisoning|
|Risk factors||It affected those who consumed fish and shellfish from Minamata Bay.|
|Prevention||Proper handling of industrial waste|
|Prognosis||35% case fatality rate; for more details, see mercury poisoning|
IAS Exam Overview
- In the first place, the most popular exam in India that IAS is conducted by the UPSC every year. Further, there are a lakhs of students who apply for the exam.
- It is one of the most challenging exams present in India and needs a lot of hard work and concentration.
- Further, there are three stages present in the IAS exam. They are prelims, mains, and Interview rounds. One must clear all rounds of the exam.
- For more details on the exam, one can refer to the official site of the UPSC. One needs to go through the complete details before applying for the exam.
- In addition, there are certain criteria applicable for one to write an exam. Therefore, know all details of the exam, and one can apply for the exam. We have added some important links that will help you with the IAS exam in this article.
History of Minamata Disease
In the first place, Minamata was first found in the city of Minamata, Kumamoto Prefecture, Japan, in 1956. Further, it was caused due to the release of methylmercury in the industrial wastewater from a chemical factory.
Later, in the year March 2001, there were 2,265 victims were officially recognized as having Minamata disease. Further, over 10,000 had received financial compensation from Chisso.
Let us now understand how Minamata is caused.
- The intake of methyl mercury causes this disease in the body through different environmental sources, primarily seafood.
- Further, a company called Chisso, one of the biggest Japanese companies, released its waste into the Minamata Bay.
- Also, many mercury poisoning cases were found in New Mexico, USA.
- Over 6,000 people were affected by exposure in Iraq because they ate flour processed from grains treated with methyl mercury.
Minamata disease symptoms
Below we have mentioned some of the Minamata disease symptoms
- Sensory loss affects both auditory and visual senses
- Severe uncontrollable tremors
- Speech impairment may also be observed
- Loss of muscle control during voluntary movements
- hearing impairment, disequilibrium
- Numbness in the extremities like the hands and feet
Further, in severe conditions, there are chances that a person may fall into a state of madness, lose consciousness, and may even die.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Minamata Disease
The treatment for Minamata disease depends on the severity of the disease.
- A person will be isolated in order to avoid further exposure. Further, it includes the removal of mercury from the body using chelating agents. Chelating agents stop heavy metals like mercury from binding with body tissue by reacting with and binding with it themselves.
- Further, there is a chance of loss of muscle function and paralysis.
- In some cases, patients may suffer from convulsions; in that case, doctors will suggest anticonvulsant drugs.
Minamata Disease Disaster
- The Minamata is a small town present in the Shiranui Sea, and because of its location, people over there happen to eat a lot of fish.
- Further, A large petrochemical plant in Minamata, run by Chisso Corporation, was suspected immediately.
- However, Chisso denied the allegation and continued manufacturing without changing its production method. In addition, they rejected the fact that its mercury waste was causing any illness. Later, Chisso Corporation dumped 27 tons of mercury compounds into Minamata Bay.
- As the mercury dumping continued, poisoned mothers gave birth to poisoned babies. As a result, all babies are born with severe deformities, including gnarled limbs, mental retardation, deafness, and blindness.
- In 1959, the fishers of Minamata began protesting Chisso Corporation, and they demanded Chisso stop dumping toxic waste and compensate them for illnesses.
- For this, Chisso made legal documents that stated it would compensate individuals for their illnesses but would accept no present or future liability.
Minamata Convention on mercury
Below we have added some of the essential points on the Minamata Convention Mercury.
- In the first place, control of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants and coal-fired industrial boilers.
- Then to reduce and, where feasible, eliminate the use and release of mercury from artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM).
- Further, it is vital for one to reduce the use of mercury in manufacturing processes such as Chlor-alkali production and vinyl chloride monomer production.
- Lastly, provisions for technical assistance, information exchange, public awareness, and research and monitoring.
Further, on Oct 16, 2004, the Supreme Court of Japan ordered the government to pay 71.5 million yen. Then, the Environment Minister bowed in apology to the plaintiffs. In addition, In 2010, Chisso was ordered to pay 2.1 million yen and monthly medical allowances. More than 50,000 were given with compensation, showing how, over five decades later, the effects of this disaster are still felt.
How to crack the IAS Exam?
Well, it is one of the popular questions asked by many IAS aspirants. As we all know, it is hard to clear the IAS exam; it is important for one to understand the exam syllabus and the pattern of the paper. In addition, go through the official site for the complete information on the IAS exam. Further, to help you with the same, we have covered all information related to the IAS exam in our other articles. Further, one can go to classes, or one can study on their own. Therefore, it depends on the individual. However, hard work and efforts remain the same. Many dreams of becoming the next IAS officer, but only a few can become one. So, put all your efforts and prepare well for the exam. Refer to the best books and give time for all the subjects.
Conclusion – Minamata Disease Disaster
In summary, after reading the above article, you will come to know about the Minamata Disease, disaster, and causes of Minamata disease. As we have mentioned before, it is vital to understand this disease as a part of the UPSC exam study materials. To understand how questions will be asked in the exam, one can go through the previous year’s question papers and give mock tests. It is an excellent idea to solve as many question papers as possible. It will help you to understand your skills and how you can improve them. Click here to get details of the other UPSC exam study materials, we are covering all essential topics for the IAS exam. Lastly, practice well and prepare well. make the best use of time. You will be able to achieve your goals.
FAQs – Minamata Disease Disaster
Industrial waste mercury/ Methyl mercury into fishing water’.
As we all know IAS exam syllabus is vast. Further, as a part of the GS papers, it is vital for one to know about the disease.
There are many books available for the IAS exam, but know which are the best concerning each subject. We have added the required information to choose the books. Know More.
Editor’s Note | Minamata Disease
Understand all information related to the causes of Minamata disease symptoms, the Minamata Convention on mercury, and the Minamata disaster. Further, we have added all the other essentials related to the Minamata disease symptoms. While reading the article, make sure that you have written down all points. It will help you with the exam preparations. Try to visit the links we have mentioned above, and they will help you with the IAS exam. We suggest one maintain a separate book to write essential points. Further, try to give mock tests to help you with the exam preparations.