We have all heard of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj, the great Indian King. We have included information on Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj in this article. In addition, we’ve covered information on Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj fights, including his early life, spouse, photo, and other information. It is critical to understand as part of the exam. So, let’s begin by thoroughly reading this essay.
- About: Shivaji Maharaj
- List of Battles Fought by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- Administration under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj: Spouse & children
- Death of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- The Maratha Kingdom
- Editor's Note | Shivaji Maharaj
About: Shivaji Maharaj
- Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj was born in the Shivneri Fort on February 19, 1630.
- Shivaji was the son of Shahaji Bhonsle, a Maratha general who ruled over the Bijapur Sultanate’s jagirs of Pune and Supe. Jijabai, Shivaji’s mother, was a devout woman who had a strong religious influence on him. Shahaji also served the sultanates of Ahmednagar and Deccan.
- He was a member of the Bhonsle Maratha tribe and an Indian emperor.
- The Maratha Empire was founded when Shivaji Maharaj carved out an enclave from the crumbling Adilshahi sultanate of Bijapur.
- At Raigad Fort, he was formally crowned the Chhatrapati of his realm in 1674. Religious tolerance and functional integration of the Brahmans, Marathas, and Prabhus were key to the kingdom’s security.
- Throughout his reign, he made alliances and wars with the Mughal Empire, the Sultanate of Golkonda, the Sultanate of Bijapur, and European colonial powers.
- His military troops enlarged the Maratha area of influence by seizing forts and establishing a Maratha navy.
- He pioneered non-conventional methods and drew on strategic considerations such as terrain, speed, and surprise to develop new military tactics.
- To defeat his larger, stronger opponents, he focused on precision attacks.
- Above all else, he prioritized the welfare of his people.
- He was a bold and genuinely secular emperor who valued women and looked out for the poor and farmers.
Information About Shivaji Maharaj Jayanti
Mahatma Jyotirao Phule, a social reformer, founded it in 1870. In Raigad, he discovered Shivaji Maharaj’s tomb. Pune hosted the inaugural Shivaji Jayanti celebrations. Shivaji Jayanti was championed by a legendary freedom fighter, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, who brought Shivaji Maharaj’s efforts to light and influenced people by promoting his image.
Before we begin, with the information on Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s life, spouse, photo, and other essential details, here is a link to various UPSC Study Materials that are available for free. Also, This will assist you in your preparation for the UPSC test. Further, You may also obtain all the notices by going to the official UPSC website page here.
List of Battles Fought by Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- Pratapgad’s Battle: The battle of Pratapgad took place on November 10, 1659, at Satara, Maharashtra, India, between the forces of Maratha King Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and the Adilshahi general Afzal Khan.
- Kolhapur’s Battle: Fight between the Maratha Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Adilshahi armies near Kolhapur, Maharashtra, on December 28, 1659.
- Pavan Khind’s Battle: Fight between the Maratha Sardar Baji Prabhu Deshpande and Siddi Masud of Adilshah on July 13, 1660, at a mountain pass near Fort Vishalgad, near Kolhapur, Maharashtra, India.
- Battle of Chakan: In the year 1660, a war broke out between the Maratha Empire and the Mughal Empire.
- Battle of Umberkhind: On February 2, 1661, a battle took place between the Maratha under Chhatrapati Shivaji and the Mughal Kartalab Khan.
- Surat’s Sacking, 1664: Fight between Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Inayat Khan, a Mughal captain, near Surat, Gujarat.
- Purandar’s Battle: In 1665, the Mughal Empire and the Maratha Empire fought.
- Battle of Sinhagad: Tanaji Malusare, a commander of Maratha ruler Shivaji Maharaj, and Udaybhan Rathod, fort keeper under Mughal Army Chief Jai Singh I, fought on the fort of Sinhagad near the city of Pune, Maharashtra, India on February 4, 1670.
- Kalyan’s Battle: Between 1682 and 1683, the Mughal Empire’s Bahadur Khan defeated the Maratha army and took control of Kalyan.
- Bhupalgarh’s Battle: In 1679, a battle took place between the Mughal and Maratha empires, with the Mughals conquering.
- Battle of Sangamner: In 1679, the Mughal Empire and the Maratha Empire fought. The Maratha King Shivaji fought in this battle for the last time.
In addition, here is the photo of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj fighting the Bijapur general Afzal Khan.
Administration under Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
The highest sovereign of the Maratha administration was Chhatrapati, and a team of eight ministers (Ashtapradhan) was selected to oversee various policies. Therefore, These 8 ministers directly reported to Shivaji Maharaj and gave them considerable authority in carrying out the King’s objectives. These were the eight ministers:
- Finance and overall administration are the responsibilities of the Peshwa (Mukhya Pradhan). Later, he was appointed Prime Minister.
- Military leader Senapati (Sar-i-Naubat) Majumdar (Amatya) Accountant General.
- Accountant General Majumdar (Amatya)
- Intelligence, posts, and family matters are all handled by Waqenavis (Mantri).
- The Dabir (Foreign Secretary) is responsible for advising the King on matters of foreign policy.
- The Nyayadhish, or Chief Justice, witnessed the creation of law and its subsequent implementation, including civil, judicial, and military law.
- The Pandit Rao, or Chief Spiritual Head, was in charge of supervising the kingdom’s spiritual well-being, scheduling religious rituals, and overseeing the King’s charity activities.
- Finally, The Sachiv, or Superintendant, was in charge of the Royal Correspondence.
- The income model of Shivaji has been applied to Malik Amber of Ahmednagar.
- The size of the land is determined using Kathi, a measuring rod.
- To avoid a Maratha raid, revenue farming Chauth (1/4th of land revenue) was discouraged.
- Sardeshmukhi was a ten percent fee of one-tenth of ordinary land revenue, levied on territories where the Marathas claimed hereditary claims.
- Existing Deshmukhs and Kulkarnis have had their power reduced.
- Kirkus, the revenue officer, was appointed.
- Shivaji maintained a large military force, constructed several important forts to safeguard his frontiers, and had a strong naval presence along the Konkan and Goan coasts.
- Further, The common soldiers received monetary pay, but the chief and military commander received jagir grants (Saranjam or Mokasa).
- Infantry (Mavali foot soldiers), Cavalry (Horse riders and equipment carriers), and the Navy made up the army.
Also, This is a photo of the Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj Statue in Mumbai, which is located across from the Gateway of India.
Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj: Spouse & children
The spouses of Shivaji Maharaj were Saibai Nimbalkar, Soyarabai Mohite, Putlabai Palkar, Gunwantabai Ingle, Sagunabai Shirke, Kashibai Jadhav, Lakshamibai Vichare, Sakwarbai Gaikwad. Four of his spouse gave him children. And Shivaji Maharaj had a total of 8 children, out of which 2 sons and 6 daughters.
- Bhosale, Chhatrapati Sambhaji Raje (1680–1689): He was Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s eldest son and successor. He was the son of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj and Maharani Saibai, his first wife. Hindavi Swarajya’s first crown prince and the second Chhatrapati of Hindavi Swarajya.
- Chhatrapati Rajaram Raje Bhosale (1689–1700) : He was Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s younger son. He was the son of Maharani Soyraibai and Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. He succeeded his elder brother Sambhaji Maharaj as the third Chhatrapati of Hindavi Swarajya.
In addition, His 6 daughters were Ranubai Jadhav, Ambikabai Mahadik, Rajkunwarbai Shirke, Deepabai, Sakubai Nimbalkar, & Kamlabai palkar.
Death of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj
- After suffering from dysentery, Shivaji died at the Raigad Fort on April 3, 1680, at the age of 52. After his death, his eldest son Sambhaji and his third wife Soyrabai had a succession dispute on behalf of her 10-year-old son Rajaram.
- Further, On June 20, 1680, Sambhaji defeated Rajaram and took the kingdom for himself.
- After Shivaji’s death, the Mughal-Maratha wars continued, and the Maratha dynasty’s glory fell.
- Later, Madhavrao Peshwa (1761-1772), a young Maratha, restored the Maratha glory and regained his control over North India.
The Maratha Kingdom
With the help of powerful warrior families, Shivaji Maharaj (1627-1680) carved established a stable state (Deshmukh).
Pune, also known as Poona, became the Maratha kingdom’s capital.
Peshwas built a strong military organization after Shivaji by invading cities and battling Mughal troops in locations where their supply lines and reinforcements could be easily disrupted.
By the 1730s, the Maratha king had established himself as the supreme ruler of the Deccan peninsula. However, He had the authority to tax Chauth and Sardeshmukhi throughout the territory.
After invading Delhi in 1737, the Maratha kingdom expanded its borders. Still, these places were not technically incorporated into the Maratha empire and were forced to pay tribute as a manner of admitting Maratha control.
Other monarchs became hostile to the Marathas as a result of these military actions. As a result, during the third battle of Panipat in 1761, they were reluctant to support the Marathas.
Cities (Malwa, Ujjain, etc.) were huge and rich, and they served as key commercial and cultural centers, demonstrating the Marathas’ good administrative capabilities.
In Conclusion, This essay will provide you with a complete overview of Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. We’ve also discussed Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s battles and his early life, spouse, photo, and other information. Also, It is one of the most important subjects for the IAS exam, as previously indicated. As a result, you will better understand this subject after reading the article.
Between 1680 and 1707, the Mughal–Maratha Wars, commonly known as the Maratha War of Independence, was fought between the Maratha Empire & the Mughal Empire. Following Aurangzeb’s demise, the Marathas destroyed the Mughals in Delhi and Bhopal, extending their dominion to Peshawar by 1758.
Putalabai Bhosale was Shivaji Maharaj’s third queen. She came from the Palkar family and was married to Shivaji Maharaj in 1653. Putalabai was the youngest of Raja Shivaji’s surviving wives. She went Sati in Shivaji Maharaj’s funeral pyre because she was childless.
Tanaji Malusare, a Maratha ruler Shivaji Maharaj commander, and Udaybhan Rathod, a fort keeper under Mughal Army Chief Jai Singh I, fought on the fort of Sinhagad near Pune, Maharashtra.
Editor’s Note | Shivaji Maharaj
In conclusion, we have included all the information on Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj. Other details include Chhatrapati Shivaji Maharaj’s early life, a list of battles he fought, his spouse, children, a photo of him, his administration, and so on. Further We’ve also included a UPSC study material link to help you cover all of the important exam topics. Also, Visit the official website for further info about the exam date and other important announcements. Always put in your best effort & never give up. Lastly, We wish you the best for your upcoming competitive exam.