You will learn about the Chauri Chaura Incident (Chora Chori kand), important dates in the Incident or movement, the map, and key points from the Incident in this article, which will help you prepare for the IAS exam. This event is significant in the history of India’s independence struggle. As a result, it is an essential aspect of UPSC preparation.
- What is Chauri Chaura Incident?
- Phases of the Chauri Chaura Movement
- Chauri Chaura Incident: Memorial
- Fast Fact: Chauri Chaura Date and Map
- Reaction Aftermath
- Conclusion- Chauri Chaura Incident
- FAQ- Chauri Chaura Incident
- Editor's Note | Chauri Chaura Incident
What is Chauri Chaura Incident?
The Chauri Chaura incident, which occurred on February 5, 1922, in the Gorakhpur area of British India, is regarded as one of the most notable pre-independence Indian incidents. A group of protestors clashed with police during the non-cooperation movement, and as a result, police opened fire on the protestors. Provoked by the gunshot, demonstrators set fire to a police station, killing all of the officers inside. The tragedy, which killed 22 or 23 police officers and three civilians, turned many people against Mahatma Gandhi, who ended the ‘Non-cooperation Movement’ after the Incident. Despite being a part of India’s freedom struggle, many people regard the occurrence as unfortunate.
Let’s take a look at the history of the Chauri Chaura incident (Chora Chori kand). The Chauri Chaura incident map and the date of the movements. Chipko Movement is another key movement that is very important for UPSC. More information can be found here. What is the Chipko Movement Andolan? When Did It All Begin? as well as Leader.
Background of the Incident
- Gandhiji launched the Non-Cooperation Movement against the government on August 1, 1920.
- It entailed the use of swadeshi and a boycott of foreign commodities, particularly machine-made fabric, as well as educational, legal & administrative institutions, with the goal of “refusing to help a misruling ruler.”
- Volunteers from the Congress & the Khilafat Movement formed a nationwide volunteer corps in the winter of 1921-22.
- During the British Raj, the Khilafat Movement was a pan-Islamic group in India that developed in 1919 in an attempt to save the Ottoman caliph as a symbol of unification among the Muslim minority in India.
- Congress backed the movement, and Mahatma Gandhi attempted to link it to the Non-Cooperation Movement.
Phases of the Chauri Chaura Movement
- In September 1920, the Indian National Congress, led by Mahatma Gandhi, launched the non-cooperation movement.
- This was supposed to be a nonviolent and peaceful campaign in which people would give up their government positions and titles, cease attending government institutions and colleges, refuse to serve in the army, and refuse to pay taxes as a last option.
- Swaraj, or self-government, was the party’s goal. People readily joined the initiative, and it was deemed a partial success, at least in terms of participation. However, an incident in Chauri Chaura shifted the movement’s trajectory.
- Unfortunately, an incident in Chauri Chaura shifted the movement’s direction. On February 2, 1922, people protested at the marketplace over high meat prices. Police beat them up, and many of their leaders were captured and held at the Chauri Chaura police station.
The volunteers planned another protest against the police.
- On the 4th of February, over 2500 people marched to the Chauri Chaura market to picket a booze establishment.
- One of the group’s leaders was apprehended. Following that, a crowd marched to the police station to demand the release of the arrested Leader.
- The cops fired rounds into the air in an attempt to disperse the crowd. The mob, however, became enraged and began throwing stones at the officers.
- Things were getting out of hand, so the station’s sub-inspector stepped forward and opened fire on the crowd, killing three individuals. This infuriated the crowd, who then charged at the outmanned police officers. The people set fire to the police station, killing all of the officers and officials who were inside.
- As a result, the British government declared martial law in the area and detained hundreds of individuals.
- After the Incident, Gandhi went on a five-day fast for his “part” in the tragedy. He officially withdrew the initiative on February 12th, believing that the people were not ready for a nonviolent revolution. He also thought that people were not given enough training to exhibit restraint in the face of violent attacks.
- Many Congress officials, such as Motilal Nehru (born May 6, 1861) and Chittaranjan Das, were opposed to the movement’s suspension since they believed the country was gaining ground.
- The government reacted quickly, putting 228 persons to trial in connection with the case. Six of them perished while being held by the police. 172 persons were sentenced to death after an eight-month trial.
- Across the country, the verdict was met with fierce opposition. The Allahabad High Court, which reviewed the judgments in 1923, confirmed 19 death sentences and 110 life sentences, and the rest were given extended prison sentences.
Chauri Chaura Incident: Memorial
In 1923, the British government established a memorial to the fallen officers. After independence, the revolutionary poet Ram Prasad Bismil added the verse ‘Shaheedon ki chitaaon par lagenge har baras mele’ to the memorial.
In 1971, the people of Chauri Chaura Shaheed Smarak Samiti created an organization called ‘Chauri Chaura Shaheed Smarak Samiti.’ The group built a 12.2-meter high minaret near the lake in Chauri Chaura in 1973.
The Indian government constructed a Shaheed Smarak to commemorate the martyrs who British rulers hung. It was etched with the names of those who were executed. A library and museum have been established near the memorial to learn more about the Indian Freedom Struggle.
The Indian government established the Chauri Chaura Express, which runs from Gorakhpur to Kanpur, as a homage to those who the British government executed.
Fast Fact: Chauri Chaura Date and Map
To improve their chances of passing the IAS test, aspirants can remember the following facts regarding the Chauri Chaura incident:
- On February 5, 1922, in the Gorakhpur area of British India, the Chauri Chaura incident occurred.
- The village of Chauri-Chaura is located in the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (UP)
- Out of 225 people charged in the Chauri-Chaura (Chora Chori kand) Incident, 172 were sentenced to death, but 19 were hung, and the rest were transported.
- Bhagwan Ahir, an army retiree from Gorakhpur (UP), was beaten up by British police, resulting in a public outcry and the Chauri-Chaura incident.
- Due to the Incident (Chora Chori kand) in February 1922, the ‘Non-cooperation Movement’ was called off.
Mahatma Gandhi’s reaction:
- He condemned the assassination of the police officers. Volunteer groups in adjacent villages were disbanded, and a Chauri Chaura Support Fund was established to show “sincere sympathy” and seek restitution.
- Gandhi decided to put a stop to the Non-Cooperation Movement, which he saw as tainted with unforgivable violence.
- He swayed the Congress Working Committee to his will, & the satyagraha (movement) was formally stopped on February 12, 1922.
- Gandhi, for his part, defended himself by citing his unwavering belief in nonviolence.
- The British Raj relentlessly persecuted the accused.
- A session court immediately condemned 172 of the 225 defendants to death. However, only 19 of the accused were hung in the end.
Other National Leaders’ Reaction:
- Jawaharlal Nehru and other leaders of the Non-Cooperation movement were taken aback by Gandhiji’s decision to call a halt to the struggle just as civil resistance had solidified its place in the independence movement.
- Other politicians, including Motilal Nehru and CR Das, expressed their displeasure with Gandhi’s choice and formed the Swaraj Party.
Conclusion- Chauri Chaura Incident
We have provided information on the Chauri Chaura (Chora Chori kand) Incident, or Movement, as well as other related information such as Incident Date, Map, Background, Phases, and so on in this article. Because it covers a wide range of problems relating to the Indian Freedom Struggle and Non-Cooperation Movement, Chauri Chaura has become one of the most talked-about topics in the UPSC exams. Many questions are raised. As a result, you should read it thoroughly. Visit here to learn more about the most recent UPSC notification.
FAQ- Chauri Chaura Incident
The Non-cooperation movement was an unsuccessful attempt by Mohandas (Mahatma) Gandhi in 1920–22 to persuade the British administration of India to grant India self-rule or swaraj. It was one of Gandhi’s first large-scale organized actions of civil disobedience (satyagraha).
Gorakhpur district in India. The Chauri Chaura incident occurred on 4 February 1922 at Chauri Chaura in the Gorakhpur district of the United Province (modern Uttar Pradesh) in British India. A large group of non-cooperation demonstrators battled with police, who opened fire.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi began the ‘Quit India’ movement on August 8, 1942, at the All-India Congress Committee meeting in Bombay. But unfortunately, the British government imprisoned Gandhi, Nehru, and many other Indian National Congress leaders the next day.
Editor’s Note | Chauri Chaura Incident
In conclusion, you will find all relevant facts on the Chauri Chaura Incident in the above article. We also talked about What is the Chauri Chaura Incident? Chauri Chaura Incident Memorial and Reaction Aftermath, Background of the Incident, Phases, Map & date. Aspirants preparing for the UPSC test should be familiar with this Incident because it is commonly asked in the UPSC mains and prelims exams. Remember to take notes while reading this material; it will come in handy during your exam. Furthermore, in order to achieve the highest outcomes in the IAS exam, one must work extremely hard. We wish you all the best!